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Put that in your pipe and smoke it. Between and The most prominent among them was al-Muqtataf A translator who contributed mightily to the advance of the Islamic Enlightenment was the Egyptian cleric Rifaa al-Tahtawi —73 , who had spent five years in Paris in the late s, teaching religion to Muslim students.
This was the biggest, most meaningful importation of foreign thought into Arabic since Abbasid times — In France al-Tahtawi had been struck by the way the French language Yet Arabic has its own sources of reinvention.
The root system that Arabic shares with other Semitic tongues such as Hebrew is capable of expanding the meanings of words using structured consonantal variations: The movement to translate English and European texts transformed the Arabic and Ottoman Turkish languages, and new words, simplified syntax , and directness came to be valued over the previous convolutions.
Educated Arabs and Turks in the new professions and the modernized civil service expressed skepticism , writes Christopher de Bellaigue , "with a freedom that is rarely witnessed today No longer was legitimate knowledge defined by texts in the religious schools, interpreted for the most part with stultifying literalness.
It had come to include virtually any intellectual production anywhere in the world. Fidelity or "faithfulness" and felicity  or transparency , dual ideals in translation, are often though not always at odds.
Transparency is the extent to which a translation appears to a native speaker of the target language to have originally been written in that language, and conforms to its grammar, syntax and idiom.
John Dryden — wrote in his preface to the translation anthology Sylvae:. A translation that meets the criterion of fidelity faithfulness is said to be "faithful"; a translation that meets the criterion of transparency, " idiomatic ".
Depending on the given translation, the two qualities may not be mutually exclusive. The criteria for judging the fidelity of a translation vary according to the subject, type and use of the text, its literary qualities, its social or historical context, etc.
The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: Nevertheless, in certain contexts a translator may consciously seek to produce a literal translation.
Translators of literary , religious , or historic texts often adhere as closely as possible to the source text, stretching the limits of the target language to produce an unidiomatic text.
Also, a translator may adopt expressions from the source language in order to provide "local color". While current Western translation practice is dominated by the dual concepts of "fidelity" and "transparency", this has not always been the case.
There have been periods, especially in pre-Classical Rome and in the 18th century, when many translators stepped beyond the bounds of translation proper into the realm of adaptation.
Adapted translation retains currency in some non-Western traditions. The Indian epic, the Ramayana , appears in many versions in the various Indian languages , and the stories are different in each.
Similar examples are to be found in medieval Christian literature, which adjusted the text to local customs and mores. Many non-transparent-translation theories draw on concepts from German Romanticism , the most obvious influence being the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher.
In his seminal lecture "On the Different Methods of Translation" he distinguished between translation methods that move "the writer toward [the reader]", i.
In recent decades, prominent advocates of such "non-transparent" translation have included the French scholar Antoine Berman , who identified twelve deforming tendencies inherent in most prose translations,  and the American theorist Lawrence Venuti , who has called on translators to apply "foreignizing" rather than domesticating translation strategies.
The question of fidelity vs. There is, however, no sharp boundary between formal and functional equivalence.
On the contrary, they represent a spectrum of translation approaches. Each is used at various times and in various contexts by the same translator, and at various points within the same text — sometimes simultaneously.
Competent translation entails the judicious blending of formal and functional equivalents. Common pitfalls in translation, especially when practiced by inexperienced translators, involve false equivalents such as " false friends "  and false cognates.
A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.
Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation.
But the results of such reverse-translation operations, while useful as approximate checks, are not always precisely reliable.
In the context of machine translation , a back-translation is also called a "round-trip translation.
Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story , " The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County ".
When a document survives only in translation, the original having been lost, researchers sometimes undertake back-translation in an effort to reconstruct the original text.
An example involves the novel The Saragossa Manuscript by the Polish aristocrat Jan Potocki — , who wrote the novel in French and anonymously published fragments in and — Portions of the original French-language manuscript were subsequently lost; however, the missing fragments survived in a Polish translation, made by Edmund Chojecki in from a complete French copy that has since lost.
Many works by the influential Classical physician Galen survive only in medieval Arabic translation. Some survive only in Renaissance Latin translations from the Arabic, thus at a second remove from the original.
To better understand Galen, scholars have attempted back-translation of such works in order to reconstruct the original Greek.
When historians suspect that a document is actually a translation from another language, back-translation into that hypothetical original language can provide supporting evidence by showing that such characteristics as idioms , puns , peculiar grammatical structures, etc.
For example, the known text of the Till Eulenspiegel folk tales is in High German but contains puns that work only when back-translated to Low German.
This seems clear evidence that these tales or at least large portions of them were originally written in Low German and translated into High German by an over- metaphrastic translator.
Supporters of Aramaic primacy —the view that the Christian New Testament or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language —seek to prove their case by showing that difficult passages in the existing Greek text of the New Testament make much more sense when back-translated to Aramaic: Due to similar indications, it is believed that the 2nd century Gnostic Gospel of Judas , which survives only in Coptic , was originally written in Greek.
Dryden is believed to be the first person to posit that English sentences should not end in prepositions because Latin sentences cannot end in prepositions.
As Latin does not have sentences ending in prepositions, Dryden may have applied Latin grammar to English, thus forming the controversial rule of no sentence-ending prepositions , subsequently adopted by other writers.
A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences , but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei , "comes close to being a lifetime job.
Viewed in this light, it is a serious misconception to assume that a person who has fair fluency in two languages will, by virtue of that fact alone, be consistently competent to translate between them.
Translation, like other human activities,  entails making choices, and choice implies interpretation. And there, my dear, I beg you to let yourself be guided more by your temperament than by a strict conscience The necessity of making choices , and therefore of interpretation, in translating [f] and in other fields of human endeavor stems from the ambiguity that subjectively pervades the universe.
Part of the ambiguity, for a translator, involves the structure of human language. Psychologist and neural scientist Gary Marcus notes that "virtually every sentence [that people generate] is ambiguous , often in multiple ways.
Our brain is so good at comprehending language that we do not usually notice. Ambiguity is a concern to both translators and, as the writings of poet and literary critic William Empson have demonstrated, to literary critics.
Ambiguity may be desirable, indeed essential, in poetry and diplomacy ; it can be more problematic in ordinary prose.
A translator is faced with two contradictory tasks: A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing.
But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest.
Translating has served as a school of writing for many an author, much as the copying of masterworks of painting has schooled many a novice painter.
Translating like analytic philosophy compels precise analysis of language elements and of their usage. In the poet Ezra Pound , then at St.
Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia , and the early modern European translators of the Bible , in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated.
They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures ; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures , idioms , and vocabulary.
Interpreting , or "interpretation," is the facilitation of oral or sign-language communication , either simultaneously or consecutively, between two, or among three or more, speakers who are not speaking, or signing, the same language.
The term "interpreting," rather than "interpretation," is preferentially used for this activity by Anglophone translators, to avoid confusion with other meanings of the word " interpretation.
Interpreters have sometimes played crucial roles in history. As a child she had been sold or given to Maya slave-traders from Xicalango, and thus had become bilingual.
Nearly three centuries later, in the United States , a comparable role as interpreter was played for the Lewis and Clark Expedition of —6 by Sacagawea.
As a child, the Lemhi Shoshone woman had been kidnapped by Hidatsa Indians and thus had become bilingual. Sworn translation , also called "certified translation," aims at legal equivalence between two documents written in different languages.
It is performed by someone authorized to do so by local regulations. Some countries recognize declared competence.
Others require the translator to be an official state appointee. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, translators must be accredited by certain translation institutes or associations in order to be able to carry out certified translations.
Many commercial services exist that will interpret spoken language via telephone. There is also at least one custom-built mobile device that does the same thing.
The device connects users to human interpreters who can translate between English and other languages. Web-based human translation is generally favored by companies and individuals that wish to secure more accurate translations.
In view of the frequent inaccuracy of machine translations, human translation remains the most reliable, most accurate form of translation available.
While not instantaneous like its machine counterparts such as Google Translate and Yahoo! Babel Fish , web-based human translation has been gaining popularity by providing relatively fast, accurate translation of business communications, legal documents, medical records, and software localization.
Language tools on the internet provide help in understanding text. Computer-assisted translation CAT , also called "computer-aided translation," "machine-aided human translation" MAHT and "interactive translation," is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program.
The machine supports a human translator. Computer-assisted translation can include standard dictionary and grammar software.
The term, however, normally refers to a range of specialized programs available to the translator, including translation-memory , terminology-management , concordance , and alignment programs.
These tools speed up and facilitate human translation, but they do not provide translation. The latter is a function of tools known broadly as machine translation.
Machine translation MT is a process whereby a computer program analyzes a source text and, in principle, produces a target text without human intervention.
In reality, however, machine translation typically does involve human intervention, in the form of pre-editing and post-editing.
These produce rough translations that, under favorable circumstances, "give the gist" of the source text. With the Internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages.
Interactive translations with pop-up windows are becoming more popular. These tools show one or more possible equivalents for each word or phrase.
Human operators merely need to select the likeliest equivalent as the mouse glides over the foreign-language text. Possible equivalents can be grouped by pronunciation.
Also, companies such as Ectaco produce pocket devices that provide machine translations. Relying exclusively on unedited machine translation, however, ignores the fact that communication in human language is context -embedded and that it takes a person to comprehend the context of the original text with a reasonable degree of probability.
It is certainly true that even purely human-generated translations are prone to error; therefore, to ensure that a machine-generated translation will be useful to a human being and that publishable-quality translation is achieved, such translations must be reviewed and edited by a human.
The weaknesses of pure machine translation , unaided by human expertise, are those of artificial intelligence itself. Translation of literary works novels , short stories , plays , poems , etc.
In the s a substantial gender imbalance was noted in literary translation into English,  with far more male writers being translated than women writers.
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