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In a rare reversal, Trotsky was supported by Stalin and Zinoviev, and prevailed against Lenin in the Central Committee.
He immediately went to Petrograd, whose leadership headed by Zinoviev he found demoralized, and organized its defense, sometimes personally stopping fleeing soldiers.
Trotsky was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for his actions in Petrograd. Trotsky spent the winter of —20 in the Urals region trying to restart its economy.
Based on his experiences, he proposed abandoning the policies of War Communism ,  which included confiscating grain from peasants, and partially restoring the grain market.
Still committed to War Communism, Lenin rejected his proposal. It was not until early , due to economic collapse and social uprisings, that Lenin and the rest of the Bolshevik leadership abandoned War Communism in favor of the New Economic Policy.
In the run-up and during the war, Trotsky argued  that the Red Army was exhausted and the Soviet government should sign a peace treaty with Poland as soon as possible.
He did not believe that the Red Army would find much support in Poland proper. Back in Moscow, Trotsky again argued for a peace treaty and this time prevailed.
In late , after the Bolsheviks won the Civil War and before the Eighth and Ninth Congress of Soviets, the Communist Party had a heated and increasingly acrimonious debate over the role of trade unions in the Soviet Union.
He was appointed there to rebuild the rail system ruined by the Civil War. Being the Commissar of War and a revolutionary military leader, he saw a need to create a militarised "production atmosphere" by incorporating trade unions directly into the State apparatus.
In the Ninth Party Congress he argued for. Who looks after this? It creates the new regime. This is the militarisation of the working class.
Lenin sharply criticised Trotsky and accused him of "bureaucratically nagging the trade unions" and of staging "factional attacks". His view did not focus on State control as much as the concern that a new relationship was needed between the State and the rank-and-file workers.
He said, "Introduction of genuine labour discipline is conceived only if the whole mass of participants in productions take a conscious part in the fulfillment of these tasks.
This cannot be achieved by bureaucratic methods and orders from above. Disagreements threatened to get out of hand, and many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, feared that the party would splinter.
Krestinsky was replaced as a member of the Politburo by Zinoviev, who had supported Lenin. The congress also adopted a secret resolution on "Party unity", which banned factions within the Party except during pre-Congress discussions.
The resolution was later published and used by Stalin against Trotsky and other opponents. At the end of the Tenth Congress, after peace negotiations had failed, Trotsky gave the order for the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion , the last major revolt against Bolshevik rule.
Trotsky bears a great deal of responsibility both for the victory of the Red Army in the civil war, and for the establishment of a one-party authoritarian state with its apparatus for ruthlessly suppressing dissent He was an ideologist and practitioner of the Red Terror.
Trotsky was implicated in many practices which would become standard in the Stalin era, including summary executions. Lenin said in that Trotsky was "in love with organisation," but in working politics, "he has not got a clue.
He had three strokes between 25 May and 9 March , which caused paralysis, loss of speech and finally death on 21 January With Lenin increasingly sidelined throughout , Stalin was elevated to the newly created position of the Central Committee general secretary.
The rest of the recently expanded Politburo Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky , Bukharin was at first uncommitted, but eventually joined the troika.
Although the exact sequence of events is unclear, evidence suggests that at first the troika nominated Trotsky to head second-rate government departments e.
Lenin was shocked and responded: Throwing Trotsky overboard — surely you are hinting at that, it is impossible to interpret it otherwise — is the height of stupidity.
If you do not consider me already hopelessly foolish, how can you think of that???? The Politburo approved the proposal, but Trotsky "categorically refused".
In late , Trotsky secured an alliance with Lenin against Stalin and the emerging Soviet bureaucracy. The delegates, most of whom were unaware of the divisions within the Politburo, gave Trotsky a standing ovation.
Among the resolutions adopted by the XIIth Congress were those calling for greater democracy within the Party, but these were vague and remained unimplemented.
Starting in mid, the Soviet economy ran into significant difficulties, which led to numerous strikes countrywide.
On 8 October Trotsky sent a letter to the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission , attributing these difficulties to lack of intra-Party democracy.
In the fiercest moment of War Communism, the system of appointment within the party did not have one tenth of the extent that it has now.
Appointment of the secretaries of provincial committees is now the rule. That creates for the secretary a position essentially independent of the local organization.
Beneath this stratum, abstaining from their own opinions, there lies the broad mass of the party, before whom every decision stands in the form of a summons or a command.
Other senior communists who had similar concerns sent The Declaration of 46 to the Central Committee on 15 October in which they wrote:.
Throughout November, the troika tried to come up with a compromise to placate, or at least temporarily neutralise, Trotsky and his supporters.
Their task was made easier by the fact that Trotsky was sick in November and December. The first draft of the resolution was rejected by Trotsky, which led to the formation of a special group consisting of Stalin, Trotsky and Kamenev, which was charged with drafting a mutually acceptable compromise.
The troika used his letter as an excuse to launch a campaign against Trotsky, accusing him of factionalism, setting "the youth against the fundamental generation of old revolutionary Bolsheviks"  and other sins.
Trotsky defended his position in a series of seven letters which were collected as The New Course in January In reality, Trotsky had already been cut off from the decision-making process.
Immediately after the Conference, Trotsky left for a Caucasian resort to recover from his prolonged illness. He was about to return when a follow up telegram from Stalin arrived, giving an incorrect date of the scheduled funeral, which would have made it impossible for Trotsky to return in time.
There was little overt political disagreement within the Soviet leadership throughout most of On the surface, Trotsky remained the most prominent and popular Bolshevik leader, although his "mistakes" were often alluded to by troika partisans.
Behind the scenes, he was completely cut off from the decision-making process. Politburo meetings were pure formalities since all key decisions were made ahead of time by the troika and its supporters.
At the thirteenth Party Congress in May, Trotsky delivered a conciliatory speech: None of us desires or is able to dispute the will of the Party.
Clearly, the Party is always right We can only be right with and by the Party, for history has provided no other way of being in the right.
The English have a saying, "My country, right or wrong", whether it is in the right or in the wrong, it is my country. We have much better historical justification in saying whether it is right or wrong in certain individual concrete cases, it is my party And if the Party adopts a decision which one or other of us thinks unjust, he will say, just or unjust, it is my party, and I shall support the consequences of the decision to the end.
In the meantime, the Left Opposition, which had coagulated somewhat unexpectedly in late and lacked a definite platform aside from general dissatisfaction with the intra-Party "regime", began to crystallise.
It lost some less dedicated members to the harassment by the troika , but it also began formulating a program. Economically, the Left Opposition and its theoretician Yevgeni Preobrazhensky came out against further development of capitalist elements in the Soviet economy and in favour of faster industrialisation.
That put them at odds with Bukharin and Rykov, the "Right" group within the Party, who supported the troika at the time. On the question of world revolution, Trotsky and Karl Radek saw a period of stability in Europe while Stalin and Zinoviev confidently predicted an "acceleration" of revolution in Western Europe in These ideological divisions provided much of the intellectual basis for the political divide between Trotsky and the Left Opposition on the one hand and Stalin and his allies on the other.
But just after the congress, the troika , always an alliance of convenience, showed signs of weakness. Stalin began making poorly veiled accusations about Zinoviev and Kamenev.
Yet in October , Trotsky published Lessons of October ,  an extensive summary of the events of the revolution. This started a new round of intra-party struggle, which became known as the Literary Discussion , with Zinoviev and Kamenev again allied with Stalin against Trotsky.
Their criticism of Trotsky was concentrated in three areas:. Trotsky was again sick and unable to respond while his opponents mobilised all of their resources to denounce him.
Trotsky kept his Politburo seat, but was effectively put on probation. After the bruising Literary Discussion and losing his Red Army posts, he was effectively unemployed throughout the winter and spring.
In May , he was given three posts: Trotsky wrote in My Life  that he "was taking a rest from politics" and "naturally plunged into the new line of work up to my ears".
Some contemporary accounts paint a picture of a remote and distracted man. In the meantime, the troika finally broke up. With only the Leningrad Party organization behind them, Zinoviev and Kamenev, dubbed The New Opposition , were thoroughly defeated while Trotsky refused to get involved in the fight and did not speak at the Congress.
The alliance became known as the United Opposition. The United Opposition was repeatedly threatened with sanctions by the Stalinist leadership of the Communist Party, and Trotsky had to agree to tactical retreats, mostly to preserve his alliance with Zinoviev and Kamenev.
The opposition remained united against Stalin throughout and , especially on the issue of the Chinese Revolution.
The methods used by the Stalinists against the Opposition became more and more extreme. At the XVth Party Conference in October , Trotsky could barely speak because of interruptions and catcalls, and at the end of the Conference he lost his Politburo seat.
In , Stalin started using the GPU Soviet secret police to infiltrate and discredit the opposition. Rank-and-file oppositionists were increasingly harassed, sometimes expelled from the Party and even arrested.
Soviet policy toward the Chinese Revolution became the ideological line of demarcation between Stalin and the United Opposition.
In reality, however, the Republic controlled very little of the country. Much of China was divided between various regional warlords.
In , the Kuomintang opened relations with Soviet Russia. With the development of the nationalist army, a Northern Expedition was planned to smash the power of the warlords of the northern part of the country.
This Northern Expedition became a point of contention over foreign policy by Stalin and Trotsky. Stalin tried to persuade the small Chinese Communist Party to merge with the Kuomintang KMT Nationalists to bring about a bourgeois revolution before attempting to bring about a Soviet-style working class revolution.
Trotsky wanted the Communist Party to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and have clear class independence from the KMT.
Stalin funded the KMT during the expedition. However, Chiang quickly reversed the tables in the Shanghai massacre of 12 April by massacring the Communist Party in Shanghai midway through the Northern Expedition.
Attacks against the United Opposition quickly increased in volatility and ferocity afterwards. When the United Opposition tried to organize independent demonstrations commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Bolshevik seizure of power in November , the demonstrators were dispersed by force and Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the Communist Party on 12 November.
Their leading supporters, from Kamenev down, were expelled in December by the XVth Party Congress , which paved the way for mass expulsions of rank-and-file oppositionists as well as internal exile of opposition leaders in early During this time Trotsky gave the eulogy at the funeral of his friend, the Soviet diplomat Adolph Joffe , in November It would be the last speech that Trotsky would give in the Soviet Union.
Trotsky and most of his followers, on the other hand, refused to surrender and stayed the course. Trotsky was exiled to Alma Ata, Kazakhstan on 31 January Between and , most leading members of the Left Opposition surrendered to Stalin, "admitted their mistakes" and were reinstated in the Communist Party.
One initial exception to this was Christian Rakovsky , who inspired Trotsky between and with his refusal to capitulate as state suppression of any remaining opposition to Stalin increased by the year.
In late , Rakovsky had failed with an attempt to flee the Soviet Union , and was exiled to Yakutia in March During his first two months in Turkey, Trotsky lived with his wife and eldest son at the Soviet Union Consulate in Constantinople and then at a nearby hotel in the city.
On Prinkipo, they were moved into a house called the Yanaros mansion, where Trotsky and his wife lived until July Trotsky was also at risk from the many former White Army officers who lived on Prinkipo, officers who had opposed the October Revolution and who had been defeated by Trotsky and the Red Army in the Russian Civil War.
Trotsky accepted the offer, but he was forbidden to live in Paris and soon found himself under the surveillance of the French police.
From July to February , Trotsky and his wife lived in Royan. Accordingly, the French authorities instructed Trotsky to move to a residence in the tiny village of Barbizon under the strict surveillance of the French police, where Trotsky found his contact with the outside world to be even worse than during his exile in Turkey.
In May , soon after the French government had agreed the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance with the Soviet Union government, Trotsky was officially told that he was no longer welcome in France.
After weighing his options, Trotsky applied to move to Norway. The accused were sentenced to death, including Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev , and executed on 25 August These conditions included agreeing to write no more about current political matters, to give no interviews, and to have all his correspondence incoming and outgoing inspected by the police.
Trotsky categorically refused the conditions, and Trotsky was then told that he and his wife would soon be moved to another residence.
When later living in Mexico, Trotsky was utterly scathing about the treatment he received during his days at Hurum, and accused the Norwegian government of trying to prevent him from publicly voicing his strong opposition to the Trial of the Sixteen and other show trials, saying:.
When I look back today on this period of internment, I must say that never, anywhere, in the course of my entire life — and I have lived through many things — was I persecuted with as much miserable cynicism as I was by the Norwegian "Socialist" government.
For four months, these ministers, dripping with democratic hypocrisy, gripped me in a stranglehold to prevent me from protesting the greatest crime history may ever know.
The Ruth oil tanker on which Trotsky and his wife were put arrived in Mexico on 9 January Trotsky wrote prolifically while in exile, penning several key works, including his History of the Russian Revolution and The Revolution Betrayed , a critique of the Soviet Union under Stalinism.
While in Mexico, Trotsky also worked closely with James P. In August , the first Moscow show trial of the so-called "Trotskyite—Zinovievite Terrorist Center" was staged in front of an international audience.
During the trial, Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 other accused, most of them prominent Old Bolsheviks, confessed to having plotted with Trotsky to kill Stalin and other members of the Soviet leadership.
The court found everybody guilty and sentenced the defendants to death, Trotsky in absentia. The second show trial, of Karl Radek , Grigori Sokolnikov , Yuri Pyatakov and 14 others, took place in January , during which more alleged conspiracies and crimes were linked to Trotsky.
The Moscow trials are perpetuated under the banner of socialism. We will not concede this banner to the masters of falsehood!
If our generation happens to be too weak to establish Socialism over the earth, we will hand the spotless banner down to our children. The struggle which is in the offing transcends by far the importance of individuals, factions and parties.
It is the struggle for the future of all mankind. It will be severe, it will be lengthy. Whoever seeks physical comfort and spiritual calm let him step aside.
In time of reaction it is more convenient to lean on the bureaucracy than on the truth. Neither threats nor persecutions nor violations can stop us!
Be it even over our bleaching bones the future will triumph! We will blaze the trail for it. Under all the severe blows of fate, I shall be happy as in the best days of my youth; because, my friends, the highest human happiness is not the exploitation of the present but the preparation of the future.
For fear of splitting the Communist movement, Trotsky initially opposed the idea of establishing parallel Communist parties or a parallel international Communist organization that would compete with the Third International.
He said  that:. An organization which was not roused by the thunder of fascism and which submits docilely to such outrageous acts of the bureaucracy demonstrates thereby that it is dead and that nothing can ever revive it In all our subsequent work it is necessary to take as our point of departure the historical collapse of the official Communist International.
In , Trotsky and his supporters founded the Fourth International , which was intended to be a revolutionary and internationalist alternative to the Stalinist Comintern.
Representative Martin Dies , chairman of the committee, demanded the suppression of the American Communist Party. He made it clear that he also intended to argue against the suppression of the American Communist Party, and to use the committee as a platform for a call to transform World War II into a world revolution.
Many of his supporters argued against his appearance. When the committee learned the nature of the testimony Trotsky intended to present, it refused to hear him, and he was denied a visa to enter the United States.
On hearing about it, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union immediately accused Trotsky of being in the pay of the oil magnates and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
He was suffering from high blood pressure , and feared that he would suffer a cerebral haemorrhage. In addition to the happiness of being a fighter for the cause of socialism, fate gave me the happiness of being her husband.
During the almost forty years of our life together she remained an inexhaustible source of love, magnanimity, and tenderness.
She underwent great sufferings, especially in the last period of our lives. But I find some comfort in the fact that she also knew days of happiness.
For forty-three years of my conscious life I have remained a revolutionist; for forty-two of them I have fought under the banner of Marxism.
If I had to begin all over again I would of course try to avoid this or that mistake, but the main course of my life would remain unchanged. I shall die a proletarian revolutionist, a Marxist, a dialectical materialist , and, consequently, an irreconcilable atheist.
My faith in the communist future of mankind is not less ardent, indeed it is firmer today, than it was in the days of my youth.
Natasha has just come up to the window from the courtyard and opened it wider so that the air may enter more freely into my room. I can see the bright green strip of grass beneath the wall, and the clear blue sky above the wall, and sunlight everywhere.
Let the future generations cleanse it of all evil, oppression and violence, and enjoy it to the full. After an ineffectual attempt to have Trotsky murdered in March , Stalin assigned the overall organization of implementing the task to the NKVD officer Pavel Sudoplatov , who in turn co-opted Nahum Eitingon.
On 20 August , Trotsky was attacked in his study by Mercader, who used an ice axe as a weapon. I laid my raincoat on the table in such a way as to be able to remove the ice axe which was in the pocket.
I decided not to miss the wonderful opportunity that presented itself. The moment Trotsky began reading the article, he gave me my chance; I took out the ice axe from the raincoat, gripped it in my hand and, with my eyes closed, dealt him a terrible blow on the head.
According to James P. Stalin has finally accomplished the task he attempted unsuccessfully before. The foundation "International Friends of the Leon Trotsky Museum" has been organized to raise funds to further improve the museum.
Trotsky was never formally rehabilitated during the rule of the Soviet government, despite the Glasnost -era rehabilitation of most other Old Bolsheviks killed during the Great Purges.
His son, Sergei Sedov , killed in , was rehabilitated in , as was Nikolai Bukharin. Esteban Volkov, who lives in Mexico, is an active promoter of his grandfather.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Trotsky considered himself a "Bolshevik-Leninist", arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party.
He considered himself an advocate of orthodox Marxism. His politics differed in many respects from those of Stalin or Mao Zedong , most importantly in his rejection of the theory of Socialism in One Country and his declaring the need for an international " permanent revolution ".
Numerous Fourth Internationalist groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyist and see themselves as standing in this tradition, although they have different interpretations of the conclusions to be drawn from this.
Thus, the accomplishment of bourgeois democratic tasks passes over into proletarian tasks. Although most closely associated with Leon Trotsky, the call for Permanent Revolution is first found in the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in March , in the aftermath of the Revolution , in their Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League:.
It is our interest and our task to make the revolution permanent until all the more or less propertied classes have been driven from their ruling positions, until the proletariat has conquered state power and until the association of the proletarians has progressed sufficiently far — not only in one country but in all the leading countries of the world — that competition between the proletarians of these countries ceases and at least the decisive forces of production are concentrated in the hands of the workers.
Their battle-cry must be: This conception was first developed by Trotsky in collaboration with Alexander Parvus in late — According to Trotskyists, the October Revolution was the first example of a successful Permanent Revolution.
The proletarian, socialist October Revolution took place precisely because the bourgeoisie, which took power in February, had not been able to solve any of the tasks of the bourgeois-democratic revolution.
It had not given the land to the peasants which the Bolsheviks did on 25 October , nor given freedom to the oppressed minority nations, nor emancipated Russia from foreign domination by ending the war which, at that point, was fought mainly to please the British and French creditors.
Trotsky was a central figure in the Comintern during its first four congresses. During this time he helped to generalise the strategy and tactics of the Bolsheviks to newly formed Communist parties across Europe and further afield.
From onwards the united front , a method of uniting revolutionaries and reformists in common struggle while winning some of the workers to revolution, was the central tactic put forward by the Comintern after the defeat of the German revolution.
After he was exiled and politically marginalised by Stalinism, Trotsky continued to argue for a united front against fascism in Germany and Spain.
According to Joseph Choonara of the British Socialist Workers Party in International Socialism , his articles on the united front represent an important part of his political legacy.
Our relations with Kamenev, which were very good in the first period after the insurrection, began to become more distant from that day.
The need of the hour was for a man who would incarnate the call to struggle, a man who, subordinating himself completely to the requirements of the struggle, would become the ringing summons to arms, the will which exacts from all unconditional submission to a great, sacrificial necessity.
He was all things rolled into one. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marxist revolutionary from Russia. For other uses, see Trotski disambiguation.
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History of socialism Socialist calculation debate Socialist economics. Decentralized planning Participatory economics.
Market socialism Lange model Mutualism. Socialist market economy Socialist-oriented market. World Federation of Democratic Youth.
International Union of Socialist Youth. International Committee of the Fourth International. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Stalin took over the position as senior secretary, which was formalized at the XIth Party Congress in April , with Molotov becoming second secretary.
New members included career seekers and former members of banned socialist parties, who were viewed with apprehension by Old Bolsheviks.
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